Advanced Criminal Law: Convicting the Innocent
Professor James R. Elkins College of Law
West Virginia University|Fall|2014|



Norfolk Four


"The Confessions"
[90 mins.] [PBS Frontline] [online viewing]



Tom Wells & Richard A. Leo, The Wrong Guys: Murder, False Confessions, and the Norfolk Four (New York: The New Press, 2008)

[excerpts from the book]

Assigned Reading

What Happened in Norfolk
[New York Times, August 19, 2007]

The Wrong Guys
[Jeffrey Toobin, The New Yorker, August 24, 2009]

Dr. Richard Ofshe Declaration
[Expert testimony on false confessions in the Norfolk Four case]

Assigned Web-Based Readings

PBS Frontline: The Confessions

Richard Leo Interview

Jay Salpeter Interview
former NYPD detective

Danny Shipley Interview
defense counsel

Michael Fasanaro Jr.
defense counsel

Reference (Video)

The Norfolk 4: A Miscarriage of Justice
[32:39 mins.] [Off Center Media, 2005]

The Cases of Raymond Santana and Eric Wilson
[1:42:54 mins.] [Washington & Lee School of Law symposiumm, "False Confessions and the True Story"] [Steve Drizen's presentation begins at 11:50 mins. and ends at 29:25 mins] [Steve Northrup on the Norfolk Four case, begins at 29:25 mins. and ends at 52:26 mins] [Brandon Garrett presentation focusing on confession contamination begins at 52:26 mins.]

Top Ten Convictions That Were Overturned
[12: 40 mins.] [The Norfolk Four case commentary begins at 8:32 mins.]

Web Resources

Norfolk Four: A Miscarriage of Justice

Norfolk Four

Legal Reforms

State Mandated Recording of Police Interrogations
[Innocence Project]