Psychology for Lawyers

understanding ourselves

c.g. jung's psychological functions


"When I first discovered psychological type it provided me with so many answers: why two people would react so differently to the same situation; why they would approach the same task from completely different angles; why something would appeal to one and repulse the other; how they could completely misunderstand what each other was saying. . . . [Then] came the questions. Why are some people flexible and adaptable with their type, while others are trapped and restricted by their type?"

--Angelina Bennet, The Shadows of Type 9 (Lulu, 2010)

"Much as one might use a compass to determine where one is in the physical world, Jung's typology is a tool for psychological orientation, a guide to understanding both oneself and many of the difficulties that arise in relationships . . .

Jung's model [of psychological types] is concerned with the movement of psychic energy and the way in which one habitually, or by preference, orients oneself in the world.

. . . . Jung differentiates eight typological groups: two personality attitudes--introversion and extraversion--and four functions (modes of orientation)--thinking, sensation, intuition and feeling--each of which may operate in an introverted or extraverted way.

* * * *

Introversion and extraversion are psychological modes of adaptation. In the former, the movement of energy is toward the inner world. In the latter, interest is directed toward the outer world. In one case the subject (one's own inner reality) and in the other the object (things and other people, outer reality) is of primary importance.

* * * *

The function of thinking refers to the process of cognitive thought; sensation is perception by means of the physical sense organs; feeling is the function of subjective judgment or valuation; and intuition refers to perception by way of the unconscious . . . .

* * * *

[I]n practice the four functions are not equally at one's conscious disposal; that is, they are not uniformly developed or differentiated. Invariably one or the other is more developed, called the primary or superior function, while the rest remain inferior, relatively undifferentiated."

--Daryl Sharp, Jungian Psychology Unplugged: My Life as an Elephant 10, 11 (Toronto: Inner City Books, 1998)

"For the truth is, full human consciousness has still to be won. It is waiting to be born from a marriage that has not yet taken place, that only can take place at the deepest level of the psyche--the marriage between thinking and feeling. In everyday life these two functions tend to be antagonistic except in certain moments of high crisis. And while this is so, human consciousness is a crippled thing."

--Alan McGlashan, Savage and Beautiful Country: The Secret Life of the Mind 55 (New York: Hillstone, 1967)


"Psychological Types," in Robert H. Hopcke, A Guided Tour of the Collected Works of C.G. Jung 49-53 (Boston: Shambhala, 1989)

"Psychological Types," in Daryl Sharp, Jungian Psychology Unplugged: My Life as an Elephant 9-14 (Toronto: Inner City Books, 1998)

"The Functions of Consciousness, Otherwise Called Typology," in Eugene Pascal, Jung to Live By 15-45 (New York: Warner Books, 1992)

Inferior & Primary Functions in Jung's Psychological Types [online text] [Frith Luton, Jungian analyst trained at the C.G. Jung Institute, Zurich]

Evaluating Your Own Psychological Type

Jungian Types Test

Class Videos

Class Viewing 1: C.G. Jung: The Genetic Patterns of Character [1:02 mins.]

Class Viewing 2: Jerome Kagan: On Temperament [6:48 mins.] [Jerome Kagan is a Professor of Psychology at Harvard University] [end at 5:45 mins.]

Class Viewing 3: Psychological Type and the Distorted View of Others [5:01 mins.] [Steve Meyers] [commentary begins with Jung's development of the idea of psychological types; reference to the transcendent function] [Steve Meyers]

Class Viewing 4: The Difference Between Thinking and Feeling [6:42 mins.] [Mark Solms]

Class Viewing 5: Jordan Peterson: MBTI is Archaic and Invalid [1:19 mins.]

Psychological Functions Diagram

Supplemental Reading: Jung and Psychological Types

Ch.10, "General Description of the Types," in C.G. Jung, Psychological Types (1921)(H. Godwyn Baynes trans., 1923) [online text]

Daryl Sharp, Personality Types: Jung's Model of Typology (Toronto: Inner City Books, 1987) [online text]

From Jungian Psychological Functions to
the Myer-Briggs Test

Understanding the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator [3:10 mins.] [end class presentation at 2:52 mins.] [basic but quite good]

Personality Types: Personality Typing Jung and MBTI [13:15 mins.] [end presentation at 3:54 mins., or at 8:00 mins.]

Jungian Typology & Myers Briggs: An Introduction [6:14 mins.] [audio with visuals] [Myers Briggs has generated a massive "Internet culture," and what we might call a "typology culture"]

Why Millions Use the Myers Briggs Assessment [2:54 mins.] [Richard Thompson] [reference to self-awareness and insights about self]

Susan Daicoff on the Myers-Briggs Test and Lawyers [9:21 mins.] [begin presentation at 1:25 mins.] [focus on the thinking/feeling functions; reference to intrinsic values]

Debate about the Myer-Briggs Test

Why the Myers-Briggs Test is Totally Meaningless
[3:35 mins.] [VOX]

A Response to the Claim that the MBTI is Meaningless
[7:08 mins.]

Readings (Supplement)

Daryl Sharp, Personality Types: Jung's Model of Typology (Toronto: Inner City Books, 1987) [online text]

Ian Weinstein, Learning and Lawyering Across Personality Types, 21 Clinical L. Rev. 427 (2015) [online text]

Reference (C.G. Jung)

Jung Comments Briefly on His Own Psychological Type
[0:59 mins.]

Sensing vs Intuition Carl Jung
[2:43 mins.]

Carl Jung on Intuition
[11:45 mins.]

Jung's Psychological Types: General Description
[3:16:40 mins.] [a reading from Jung's work on psychological types]

Jung's Psychological Types
[1:57:31 mins.]

Psychological Types. Part 1: Introduction
[7:11 mins.] [Pt1 of 22] [reading from Jung's work]

Psychological Types Then and Now: The Relevance and Application of Jung's Theory
[1:16:37 mins.] Pt2 [1:13:50 mins.] Pt3 [1:11:31 mins.]

Reference (Steve Meyers)

Type Dynamics and Relationships
[2:39 mins.]

Extravert and Introvert Conflict over Ideas at Work
[2:14 mins.]

Stress Caused by Differences in Judgment and Perception
[4:56 mins.]

Normality in Analytical Psychology
[22:35 mins.]

Reference (John Beebe)

A Jungian Analyst Talks about Psychological Types
[58:18 mins.] [recommended presentation begins at 11:57 mins., extends to 17:56 mins.] [Beebe comments on the use of the psychological types by Jungian analysts at 8:45 mins.; and at 10:00 mins. comments on Jung and the multiple selves that comprise our psyche] [Beebe refers to the psychological types as a "four-fold cognitive structure" which he further elaborates as an eight-fold structure] [Beebe's commentary at times is quite complicated]

Individuating the Types
[1:13:49 mins.] [2015]

A New Model of Psychological Types
[1:19:36 mins.] [audio] [1988] [lecture begins at 2:40 mins.] [the types are the basic problem of individuation]]

Reference (Hile Rutledge)

Why Choose a Type?
[2:29 mins.] [Hile Rutledge] [Hile Rutledge is associated with a consulting firm that focuses on leadership & team development] [distinguishing behaviors and types]

Introduction to Thinking|Feeling
[2:39 mins.]

Feelers More Emotional Than Thinkers?
[1:05 mins.]

Introduction to Sensing-iNtuition
[3:24 mins.] [poor quality video]

Introduction to Extravert-Introvert
[10:04 mins.] [poor quality video]

Getting Introverts to Extravert
[4:12 mins.]

Does Type Change?
[2:06 mins.]

Why Use Temperament over Type?
[1:47 mins.]

How Judgers and Perceivers Approach Goals
[8:52 mins.] [poor quality video]

Emotional Intelligence: Agent of Change
[18:34 mins.]

Reference (Michael Pierce on Jung's Typology & Myers-Briggs)

Jungian Typology in 6 Minutes [6:20 mins.] [typology presented in a great rush] [for class room presentation the video can be ended at 2:12 mins.]]

The Sixteen Types in Five Minutes [5:23 mins.]

Jungian Typology & Myers Briggs: An Introduction [6:14 mins.] [audio with visuals] Lesson 2: Extroversion vs. Introversion [5:07 mins.] Lesson 3.1: Rationality vs. Irrationality [3:24 mins.] Lesson 3.2: Rational Functions [2:49 mins.] Lesson 3.3: Irrational Functions [4:12 mins.] Lesson 4.1: The Functions in Attitudes [9:45 mins.] Lesson 4.2: The Eight Directional Functions [10:37 mins.] Lesson 5: Introduction to the Sixteen Myers-Briggs Types [8:23 mins.]

The Judgment Axes [7:00 mins.]

The Perceiving Axes [8:48 mins.]

Perception and Judgment Categories [18:10 mins.]

The Sixteen Types: An Index [17 videos] The Types Revisited [14 videos] Revisiting the Types: Introduction [4:44 mins.] The Sixteen Types: ISTP [15:46 mins.] Revisiting the Types: ISTP [21:08 mins.] Revisiting the Types: INTP [21:28 mins.] The Sixteen Types: ISTJ [7:54 mins.] Revisiting the Types: ISTJ [22:44 mins.] The Sixteen Types: INFJ [14:58 mins.] Revisiting the Types: INFJ [22:27 mins.] The Sixteen Types: INFP [14:25 mins.] Revisiting the Types: INFP [23:26 mins.] Revisiting the Types: INTJ [24:08 mins.] The Sixteen Types: ENFP [13:11 mins.] Revisiting the Types: ENTP [22:00 mins.] Revisiting the Types: ENFP [22:45 mins.] The Sixteen Types: ESFP [17:07 mins.] The Sixteen Types: ESTP [17:53 mins.] The Sixteen Types: ESTJ [8:03 mins.]

ESTJ [8:04 mins.] ENFP [13:11 mins.] ENFJ [9:46 mins.] INFJ [14:58 mins.] ISTJ [7:54 mins.]

Extroversion & Introversion: Update [23:42 mins.] Rational Functions: Update: Te vs Ti [14:44 mins.] Irrational Functions Update: Ne vs Ni [18:52 mins.] Irrational Functions Update: Se vs Si [12:46 mins.]

Notes on Jung: The Psychological Types [18:11 mins.]

Notes on Jung: The Collective Unconscious [14:38 mins.]

How to Type Someone: Part I: Research and Humility [7:46 mins.] How to Type Someone: Part II: The Functional Axes [7:05 mins.] How to Type Someone: Part III: Typing Yourself [20:26 mins.]

Reference (David Keirsey & Temperment)

Introduction to the Keirsey Temperament Sorter
[2:39 mins.]

Keirsey's Temperaments
[5:21 mins.]

Why Use Temperament over Type?
[1:47 mins.]

Interview with David Keirsey: Personality Theory
[31:45 mins.] [poor quality video]

Reference (Susan Cain: Extraversion/Introversion)

Susan Cain Says Over 50% of Lawyers are Introverts
[15:35 mins.] [Bloomberg Law] [Susan Cain was a Wall Street lawyer before she became a writer] [introvert and extrovert defined at 4:20 mins.; commentary on Brian Little and his "free trait" theory, at 11:46 mins., and ends at 13:22 mins.]

The Pressure To Be Outgoing
[1:38 mins.]

The Power of Introverts
[19:04 mins.] [TED Talk] [the extravert bias]

The Power of Introverts
[8:09 mins.]

The Power of Introverts
[48:04 mins.] [2016]

On the Formation of Personality
[2:57 mins.] [2017]

Educating Introverts
[2:46 mins.] [2017]

Reference (Videos)

Personality: Carl Jung and Karen Horney
[14:49 mins.] [Chris Dula] [discussion of extroverts and introverts begins at 6:04 mins. and ends at 7:45 mins.]

Jung's Functions of Consciousness
[17:21 mins.] Presentation is part of a course on Jungian Psychology: The Structure of the Psyche [9:37 mins.] The Dynamics of the Psyche: Conscious & Unconscious [10:48 mins.]

John Betts Jung Podcast #11: Jung's Theory of Typology
[28:37 mins.] [audio] Pt2 [31:27 mins.]

Psychological Types Then and Now: Jungian Psychological Association
[1:16:37 mins.] [comments on Jung's psychological typology begins at 45:06 mins.] [Ernest Falzheder] [2015] [poor quality video]

Psychological Types
[4:21 mins.] [Borris Mathews]

The Fifth Function of Psychological Type
[1:26:33 mins.] [presentation by Roy Childs] [a different approach to thinking about psychological types]

Stress, Individuation and Developing Functions
[13:00 mins.] [video not of the highest quality, but is of some interest] [commentary on individuation begins at 2:54 mins.]

Getting Introverts to Extravert
[4:12 mins.]

The Development of Type in the Individual: Jungian Psychological Association
[1:11:30 mins.] [Elizabeth Murphy]

John David Ebert Lecturing on the 4 Functions
[9:58 mins.] [audio]

Jung's Functions of Consciousness
[17:21 mins.]

Type Dynamics and Relationships
[2:49 mins.]

Extravert and Introvert Conflict over Ideas at Work
[2:14 mins.]

Stress Caused by Differences in Judgment and Perception
[4:56 mins.]

Jung's Four Functions: Thinking, Feeling, Intuition, Sensation
[8:41 mins.]

John David Ebert on Carl Jung
[9:58 mins.] [commentary on Jung's psychological types]

Introduction to Personality Type
[8:51 mins.] [expansive claims for how we can make use of psychological type ends at 2:55 mins.]

An Introduction to CG Jung and Jungian Typology
[9:56 mins.] [audio & Powerpoint]

Jungian Typology and Critical Pedagogy
[9:56 mins.]

Myers Briggs Personality Test
[13:23] [distinguishing "intraversion" and "extraversion"]

Neuroscience, Jungian Type and Mathematics: Insights into Student Struggles
[18:38 mins.] [Jane Kise] [TED Talk]

Neuroscience of Personality
[1:25:26 mins.] [Dari Nardi]

Dario Nardi's Journey with Personality Typology
[16:50 mins.] Current Theoretical Ideas in Personality Type [22:20 mins.]

Dismantling Dario Nardi's Neuroscience of Type
[47:42 mins.]

Joseph Campbell

Solving the Wasteland of Images and Feelings
[8:22 mins.] [Campbell's brief comments on Jung's psychological functions begins at 3:52 mins., ends at 5:18 mins.]

Enantiodromia and Four Psychological Functions
[9:06 mins.]

Character Types and the Transcendent Function
[3:51 mins.]

Reference (Thinking/Feeling)

Gerry Spence on Legal Education
[3:57 mins.]

Reference (Web Resources)

Jung's Psychological Theory of Types
[M. Alan Kazlev]

Jungian Cognitive Functions

Psychological Types
[Kelly L. Ross, 2003]

Clinical Perspectives: Psychological Type and Archetype
[Luanne Sberna, 2010]

Using the Jung-Myers Model of Psychological Type: A Case Study
[Angelina Bennet]

Jung Typology Test
[You can take the test online. The test requires only a few minutes.]

Understanding Lawyers: Why We Do the Things We Do
[Jeff Foster, Larry Richard, Lisa Rohrer & Mark Sirkin]

Can Psychological Type be a Barrier to Individuation?
[article published in Typeface, the quarterly magazine of the British Association for Psychological Type (BAPT)]

Reference (Inferior Function and Shadow)

Angelo Spoto, The Inferior Function as a Moral Issue
[excerpt from Spoto's Jung's Typology in Perspective (Chiron Publications)]

What Is A “Shadow” In Myers-Briggs Theory?

Reference (Articles)

Raymond B. Marcin, Psychological Type Theory in the Legal Profession, 24 U. Tol. L. Rev. 103 (1992) [online text]

Don Peters & Martha M. Peters, Maybe That's Why I Do That: Psychological Type Theory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and Learning Legal Interviewing, 35 N.Y. Law Sch. L. Rev. 169 (1990)

_________________________, Using Psychological Type Theory to Help Law Students Develop Professional Identity, 27 Regent U. L. Rev. 255 (2015) [online text]

Don Peters, Forever Jung: Psychological Type Theory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and Learning Negotiation, 42 Drake L. Rev. 1 (1993) [online text]

R. Lisle Baker, Using Insights About Perception and Judgment from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Instrument as an Aide to Mediation, 9 Harv. Negotiation L. Rev. 115 (2004) [online text]

Monice M. Kaczorowski & Holly Pinto, Getting Personal: Understanding Personality Types for Better Communication, AALL Spectrum 18 (2009) [online text]

Larry Richard, Psychological Type and Job Satisfaction Among Practicing Lawyers in the United States, 29 Cap. U.L. Rev. 979 (2002)

___________, How Your Personality Affects Your Practice: The Lawyer Types, 79 A.B.A. J. 74 (1993)

Paul Van R. Miller, Personality Differences and Student Survival in Law School, 19 J. Legal Educ. 460 (1967)

Vernellia R. Randall, The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: First Year Law Students and Performance, 26 Cumb. L. Rev. 63 (1993)

"The Lawyer as Advisor: 'Human' Factors that Complicate Your Role," in Robin Wellford Slocum, Legal Reasoning, Writing, & Other Lawyering Skills (LexisNexis, 3rd ed., 2011) [online text]

Susan Daicoff, Asking Leopards to Change Their Spots: Should Lawyers Change? A Critique of Solutions to Problems with Professionalism by Reference to Empirically-Driven Attorney Personality Attributes, 11 Geo. J. Legal Ethics 547 (1998)

Airina Rodrigues, Introverts in an Extroverts' World, 102 (1) A.B.A. J. 36 (January 2016)

Reference (John Beebe & Jung's Psychological Types)

John Beebe, Evolving the Eight-Function Model, 8 (1) Australian Psychological Type Rev. 39 (2006) [online text]

John Beebe, Type and Archetype: The Spine and the Shadow, 9 (2) Australian Psychological Type Rev. 1 (2007) [online text]

John Beebe, Type and Archetype: The Arms and their Shadow (2007) [online text]

A Jungian Analyst Talks About Psychological Types

Reference (Books)

  Don C. Peters & Martha M. Peters, Juris Types: Learning Law Through Self-Understanding (Gainesville, Florida: Center for Applications of Psychological Type, 2007)

Reference (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator)


Reference (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator)(Videos)

Myers Briggs Type Indicator: Overview of MBTI
[5:37 mins.]

How MBTI Works: The Eight Cognitive Functions
[13:14 mins.]

How MBTI Works: The Order of the Functions
[10:39 mins.]

MBTI: The Dominant and Auxiliary Functions
[13:32 mins.]

MBTI: The ACTUAL Definitions of Introversion and Extraversion
[5:56 mins.]

MBTI: What is Sensing? Intuition? Thinking? Feeling?
[23:42 mins.]

Introvert vs Extrovert: Understanding Introverts and Extroverts
[20:58 mins.]

Extraverted and Introverted Functions: What's the Difference?
[8:18 mins.] [this talk on extraversion and introversion is sufficiently complex that it may leave you scratching your head, if it does not give you a headache]

C.G. Jung's Psychological Types (vol. 6, Collected Works)

C.G. Jung, Psychological Types Digital Edition


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