Prosecutorial Misconduct
Professor James R. Elkins College of Law
West Virginia University|Spring|2012|


Assignments Archive

Internet Resources

John Kroger Book

Prosecutorial Immunity


Course Evaluation


[Note: If the bibliographical reference is followed with an ssrn link, the article is available on the Social Science Research Network. A link is provided if the article is located on the Internet.]


Bennett L. Gershman, Prosecutorial Misconduct (West Group, 1998)

Harmful Error: Investigating America's Local Prosecutors (Center for Public Intregrity, 2003)

Stuart Taylor, Jr. & KC Johnson, Until Proven Innocent: Political Correctness and the Shameful Injustices of the Duke Lacrosse Rape Case (New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Griffin, 2007)



lafair S. Burke, Talking About Prosecutors, 31 Cardozo L. Rev. 2119 (2010) [ssrn]

_____________, Improving Prosecutorial Decision Making: Some Lessons of Cognitive Science, William & Mary L. Rev. [ssrn]

_____________, Prosecutorial Agnosticism, 8 Ohio St. J. Crim. L. ___ (2010) [ssrn]

Michael D. Cicchini, Prosecutorial Misconduct at Trial: A New Perspective Rooted in Confrontation Clause Jurisprudence, 37 Seton Hall L. Rev. 335 (2007) [on-line text]

Geraldine Szott Moohr, Prosecutorial Power in an Adversarial System: Lessons from Current White Collar Cases [ssrn]

Bennett L. Gershman, Why Prosecutors Misbehave, Crim. L. Bulletin [ssrn] [on-line text]

________________, Mental Culpability and Prosecutorial Misconduct, 26 Am. J. Crim. L. 121 (1998)[ssrn]

Kay L. Levine, The New Prosecution, 40 Wake Forest L. Rev. 1125 (2005) [ssrn]

Barbara O’Brien, A Recipe for Bias: An Empirical Look at the Interplay between Institutional Incentives and Bounded Rationality in Prosecutorial Decision Making [ssrn]

Heather Schoenfeld, Violated Trust: Conceptualizing Prosecutorial Misconduct, 21 (3) J. Contemp. Crim. Justice 250 (2005)


Kathleen M. Ridolfi & Maurice Possley, Preventable Error: A Report on Prosecutorial Misconduct in California 1997-2009 (Veritas Initiative Report, Northern California Innocence Project, Santa Clara University School of Law) [on-line text]

Case Studies: The Duke Lacrosse|Mike Nifong Case

Michael Cassidy, The Prosecutor and the Press: Lessons (Not) Learned from the Mike Nifong Debacle, 71 Law & Contemp. Prob. (2008) [ssrn]

Susan Duncan, Race, Riches & Reporters - Do Race and Class Impact Media Rape Narratives? An Analysis of the Duke Lacrosse Case, __ So. Ill. U. L. Rev. ___ (2007) [ssrn]

David A. Elder, A Libel Law Analysis of Media Abuses in Reporting on the Duke Lacrosse Fabricated Rape Charges, 11 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. ___ (2008) [ssrn]

Lenese C. Herbert, "When Prosecutorial Discretion Meets Disaster Capitalism," in Michael L. Seigel (ed.), RACE TO INJUSTICE: LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE DUKE UNIVERSITY LACROSSE PLAYERS RAPE CASE 211-235 (Carolina Academic Press, 2008) [ssrn]

Robert P. Mosteller, The Duke Lacrosse Case, Innocence, and False Identification: A Fundamental Failure to “Do Justice,” 76 Fordham L. Rev. 1337 (2007) [ssrn] [on-line text]

_______________, Exculpatory Evidence, Ethics, and the Road to the Disbarment of Mike Nifong: The Critical Importance of Full Open-File Discovery, 15 Geo. Mason L. Rev. ___ (2008) [ssrn]


Michael Cassidy, Character and Context: What Virtue Theory Can Teach Us About a Prosecutor's Ethical Duty to 'Seek Justice,' 82 Notre Dame L. Rev. 101 (2006) [ssrn]

Lawton P. Cummings, Can an Ethical Person Be an Ethical Prosecutor? A Social Cognitive Approach to Systemic Reform, 31 Cardozo L. Rev. 2139 (2010)

Amie N. Ely, Prosecutorial Discretion as an Ethical Necessity: The Ashcroft memorandum's Curtailment of the Prosecutor's Duty to "Seek Justice," 90 Cornell L. Rev. 237 (2004) [ssrn]

Michael Q. English, A Prosecutor's Use of Inconsistent Factual Theories of a Crime in Successive Trials: Zealous Advocacy or a Due Process Violation? 68 Fordham L. Rev. 525 (1999) [on-line text]

Bennett L. Gershman, The Prosecutor's Duty to Truth, 14 Geo. J. Legal Ethics. 309 (2001) [on-line text]

Bruce A. Green, Prosecutorial Ethics as Usual, __ U.Ill. L. Rev. 1573 (2003) [ssrn][on-line text]

William M. Hoeveler, Ethics and the Prosecutor, 29 Stetson L. Rev. 195 (1999)

David Luban, The Conscience of a Prosecutor, Val. U.L. Rev. [ssrn]

The Prosecutor's Decision to Charge

Daniel S. Medwed, Emotionally Charged: The Prosecutorial Charging Decision and the Innocence Revolution, 31 Cardozo L. Rev. 2187 (2010) [on-line text]

Disclosure & Exculpatory Evidence

Alafair S. Burke, Revisiting Prosecutorial Disclosure, Ind. L. J. [ssrn]

Daniel J. Capra, Access to Exculpatory Evidence: Avoiding the Agurs Problems of a Prpesecutorial Discretion and Retrospective Review, 53 Fordham L. Rev. 391 (1984) [on-line text]

Stanley Z. Fisher, The Prosecutor's Ethical Duty to Seek Exculpatory Evidence in Police Hands: Lessons from England, 68 fordham L. Rev. 1379 (2000).

Bennett L. Gershman, Reflections on Brady v. Maryland, 47 So. Tex. L. Rev. 685 (2006) [on-line text]

________________, Bad Faith Exception to Prosecutorial Immunity for Brady Violations [on-line text]

Bruce A. Green, Beyond Training Prosecutors About Their Disclosure Obligations: Can Prosecutors' Offices Learn from Their Lawyers' Mistakes?, 31 Cardozo L. Rev. 2161 (2010) [ssrn]

Andrew Smith, Brady Obligations, Criminal Sanctions, and Solutions in a New Era of Scrutiny, 61 Vand. L. Rev. 1935 (2008) [on-line text]


Andrea D. Lyon, Setting the Record Straight: A Proposal for Handling Prosecutorial appeals to Racial, Ethnic or Gender Prejudice in Argument [on-line text]

Closing Argument

Charles Cantrell, Prosecutorial Misconduct: Recognizing Errors In Closing Argument, 26 Am. J. Trial Advoc. 535 (2003) [on-line text]

________________, Prosecutorial Misconduct: Closing Argument in Oklahoma, 31 Okla. C.U. L. Rev. 379 (2006) [on-line text]

J. Allison DeFoor, II, Prosecutorial Misconduct in Closing Argument, 7 Nova L.J. 443 (1982-1983)

Expert Witnesses

Paul C. Giannelli & Kevin C. McMunigal, Prosecutors, Ethics, and Expert Witnesses, 76 Fordham L. Rev. 1493 (2007) [ssrn]

Jane Campbell Moriarty, 'Misconvictions', Science, and the Ministers of Justice, 86 Neb. L. Rev. __ (2007) [ssrn]

Dishonest Experts and Jailhouse Snitches

Myrna S. Raeder, See No Evil: Wrongful Convictions and The Prosecutorial Ethics of Offering Testimony by Jailhouse Informants and Dishonest Experts, 76 Fordham L. Rev. 1413 (2007) [ssrn]


Sandra Uribe, A Primer on Alleging Prosecutorial Misconduct on Appeal [on-line text]


Daniel S. Medwed, The Zeal Deal: Prosecutorial Resistance to Post-Conviction Claims of Innocence, 84 B.U. L. Rev. 125 (2004) [ssrn] [on-line text]

Fred C. Zacharias, The Role of Prosecutors in Serving Justice After Convictions, 58 Vand. L. Rev. 171 (2005) [ssrn]

Wrongful Convictions & Innocence Exonerations

Susan A. Bandes, Framing Wrongful Convictions [ssrn]

Bruce A. Green & Ellen Yaroshefsky, Prosecutorial Discretion and Post-Conviction Evidence of Innocence, 6 Ohio St. J. Crim. L. ___ (2009) [ssrn]

Peter A. Joy, The Relationship Between Prosecutorial Misconduct and Wrongful Convictions: Shaping Remedies for a Broken System, 2008 Wis. L. Rev. 399 (2006) [ssrn] [on-line text]

Daniel S. Medwed, The Prosecutor as Minister of Justice: Preaching to the Unconverted from the Post-Conviction Pulpit, 84 Wash. L. Rev. 35 (2009) [ssrn]

Susan Ruthberg, Anatomy of a Miscarriage of Justice: The Wrongful Conviction of Peter J. Rose, Golden Gate L. Rev. 2006 [ssrn]

Ellen Yaroshefsky, Wrongful Convictions: It Is Time to Take Prosecution Discipline Seriously, 8 U.D.C. L. Rev. 275 (2004)

Fred C. Zacharias, The Role of Prosecutors in Serving Justice After Convictions, 58 Vand. L. Rev. 171 (2005) [on-line text]

Fred C. Zacharias & Bruce Green, The Duty to Avoid Wrongful Convictions: A Thought Experiment in the Regulation of Prosecutors, 89 Bos.U. L. Rev. 1 (2009) [ssrn]

Misconduct in Capital Cases

Gilbert Stroud Merritt, Jr., Prosecutorial Error in Death Penalty Cases, 76 Tenn. L. Rev. 677 (2009)

Natasha Minsker, Prosecutorial Misconduct in Death Penalty Cases, 45 Cal. W. L. Rev. 373 (2009)

Fay F. Spence, The Role of Prosecutorial Misconduct in Virginia Capital Cases [on-line text]

Remedies (or Lack Thereof) for Prosecutorial Misconduct

Susan A. Bandes, The Lone Miscreant, the Self-Training Prosecutor, and Other Fictions: A Comment on Connick v. Thompson, Fordham L. Rev. 2011 [ssrn] [on-line text]

Lawton P. Cummings, Can an Ethical Person Be an Ethical Prosecutor? A Social Cognitive Approach to Systemic Reform, 31 Cardozo L. Rev. 2139 (2010) [ssrn]

Angela J. Davis, The Legal Profession’s Failure to Discipline Unethical Prosecutors, 36 Hofstra L. Rev. 275 (2007) [on-line text]

Abby L. Dennis, Reining in the Minister of Justice: Prosecutorial Oversight and the Superseder Power, 57 Duke L.J. 131 (2007) [on-line text]

Alexandra White Dunahoe, Revisiting the Cost-Benefit Calculus of the Misbehaving Prosecutor: Deterrence Economics and Transitory Prosecutors, 61 NYU Ann. Survey Am. L. 45 (2005) [on-line text]

Adam M. Gershowitz, Prosecutorial Shaming: Naming Attorneys to Reduce Prosecutorial Misconduct, 42 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 1059 [ssrn]

Adam M. Gershowitz & Laura R. Killinger, The State (Never) Rests: How Excessive Prosecutorial Caseloads Harm Criminal Defendants, 105 Northwestern U. L. Rev. 261 (2011) [on-line text]

Peter J. Henning, Prosecutorial Misconduct and Constitutional Remedies, 77 Wash.U. L. Quart. 713 (1999) [ssrn] [on-line text]

Lyn M. Morton, Seeing the Elusive Remedy for Prosecutorial Misconduct: Suppression, Dismissal, or Discipline?, 7 Geo. J. Legal Ethics 1083 (1983-1984)

Note, Harmless Error, Prosecutorial Misconduct, and Due Process: There’s More to Due Process than the Bottom Line, 88 Colum. L. Rev. 1298 (1988)

Jillian Rowback, The Role of Individual Differences in Explaining the Acceptability of Prosecutorial Misconduct, Master of Arts, Forensic Psychology, Thesis, Roger Williams University [on-line text] [Effect of Judge's Jury Instructions on Misconduct]

Sonja B. Starr, Sentence Reduction as a Remedy for Prosecutorial Misconduct [on-line text]

Lesley E. Williams, The Civil Regulation of Prosecutors, 67 Fordham L. Rev. 3441 (1999) [on-line text]

Fred C. Zacharias, The Professional Discipline of Prosecutors [ssrn]